Dyslexia Information

  • Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurobiological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge. Adopted by the International Dyslexia Association Board of Directors, November 12, 2002


    Texas Education Code (TEC) §38.003 defines dyslexia and related disorders in the following way: “Dyslexia” means a disorder of constitutional origin manifested by a difficulty in learning to read, write, or spell, despite conventional instruction, adequate intelligence, and sociocultural opportunity. “Related disorders” include disorders similar to or related to dyslexia, such as developmental auditory imperception, dysphasia, specific developmental dyslexia, developmental dysgraphia, and developmental spelling disability. TEC §38.003(d)(1)-(2) (1995) http://www.statutes.legis.state.tx.us/Docs/ED/htm/ED.38.htm#38.003 


    Kindergarten and First Grade

    • Difficulty breaking words into smaller parts, or syllables

    • Difficulty identifying and manipulating sounds in syllables

    • Difficulty remembering the names of letters and recalling their corresponding sounds

    • Difficulty decoding single words 

    • Difficulty spelling words the way they sound (phonetically) or remembering letter sequences in very common words seen often in print


    Second Grade and Third Grade

    • Difficulty recognizing common sight words 

    • Difficulty decoding single words

    • Difficulty recalling the correct sounds for letters and letter patterns in reading

    • Difficulty connecting speech sounds with appropriate letter or letter combinations and omitting letters in words for spelling

    • Difficulty reading fluently

    • Difficulty decoding unfamiliar words in sentences using knowledge of phonics

    • Reliance on picture clues, story theme, or guessing at words


    Fourth Grade through Sixth Grade

    • Difficulty reading aloud 

    • Avoidance of reading 

    • Difficulty reading fluently 

    • Difficulty decoding unfamiliar words in sentences using knowledge of phonics

    • Acquisition of less vocabulary due to reduced independent reading

    • Use of less complicated words in writing that are easier to spell than more appropriate words

    • Reliance on listening rather than reading for comprehension


    Middle School and High School

    • Difficulty with the volume of reading and written work

    • Frustration with the amount of time required and energy expended for reading

    • Difficulty reading fluently

    • Difficulty decoding unfamiliar words in sentences using knowledge of phonics

    • Difficulty with written assignments

    • Tendency to avoid reading

    • Difficulty learning a foreign language